Some researchers consider the city of Tiwanaku to be the oldest city in the world, a lot of its creations defying the laws of physics even by today’s principles.
A major part of the monuments have the same characteristics as other creations belonging to different cultures all over the globe. It reveals a glimpse of our history, representing the key piece of this great puzzle as it converges other ancient and mysterious civilizations scattered on Earth.
The testimony left behind by this truly ancient culture consists of gods, temples, idols and metaphors, leaving an enigmatic idea of its origins and purpose.
The remains of the ancient settlement are situated near the south-eastern shore of Lake Titicaca in the La Paz Department, in western Bolivia. It is considered by Andean scholars as the most important precursor to the Inca Empire, prospering as the ritual and administrative capital of a large-scale state for about five hundred years.
It was first discovered and mentioned in written history by the Spanish conquistadors in 1549, while they were looking for the Inca capital of Collasuyu.
The name by which Tiwanaku was known to the ancient dwellers has been lost, as the people apparently had no written language. However, its modern name – Tiwanaku, is believed to be related to the Aymara term “taypiqala”, meaning “stone in the center”, pointing in the direction of its location being at the center of the world.
Considered the oldest city in the world, Tiwanaku possessed astonishing techniques in agriculture, art, building technology and administration, and it is believed that its inhabitants received help from an advanced extraterrestrial race who also created the Nazca Lines.
Although a date of extreme antiquity is often put to discussion, carbon-14 dating places the settlement at no earlier than 1,700 BC.
Other theories say that Tiwanaku dates back to 15,000 BC, claiming that it might have been built over other ancient structures from the past.
It is formidable how a civilization dating from BC managed to obtain results beyond our current scientific level in agriculture, engineering, as well as administration. Where this knowledge came from remains a mystery.
Located between Lake Titicaca and dry highlands, in a productive environment with predictable and abundant rainfall, the Tiwanaku culture developed a unique farming technique known as “flooded-raised field” agriculture.
It consisted in artificially raised planting mounds, separated by shallow canals filled with water. The canals offered moisture for growing crops, while also absorbing heat from sunlight during the day. The accumulated heat was released during the cold nights that often produced frost, therefore providing thermal protection.
Another remarkable feature of the canals was the ability to farm fish, with the resulting canal mud being used as fertilizer.
To comprehend the result of these actions, let’s compare traditional agriculture in the region, typically obtaining an average of 2.4 metric tons of potatoes per hectare, and modern agriculture with artificial fertilizers giving an average of 14.5 metric tons per hectare. Now, the previously mentioned technique- known as suka kollu- gave an average of 21 tons of potatoes per hectare.
Another remarkable feature of this ancient and advanced civilization is the impressive architecture, described by massive stones of exceptional workmanship. Tiwanaku stonework consists of gigantic structures equipped with an elaborate drainage system. It included drainage passages formed of red sandstone blocks kept together by ternary bronze architectural cramps, created by cold hammering of ingots. The cramps of the Akapana were made by pouring molten metal into I-shaped sockets.
The gigantic stone monoliths used in the construction of the city were transported from quarries forty miles away from the site. The way they managed to cut and move the colossal stones in a time where there were no domestic horses or other beasts of burden remains yet another mystery.
The Kalasaya, known as “The Standing Pillars” or “place of the vertical stones” is a raised rectangular enclosure measuring about 450 feet by 400 feet, built like a stockade with 12 foot high columns projecting upward at intervals, each of them being carved into human figures.
Recent studies have led scientists to believe that the positioning of the structure was based upon an astronomical principle called “the obliquity of the ecliptic.”
The Akapana, the biggest step pyramid of the city, was once considered to be a modified mound, but has proven to be a gigantic man-made construction with a base of 656 feet and a height of 55 feet. The structure is made of perfectly cut stone blocks, united harmoniously.
It was originally covered with smooth Andesite stone, and its interior was honeycombed with shafts resulting in a complicated grid pattern. The pyramid also had a drainage system.
The Puma Punku, also known as Door of the Puma is a nearby structure consisting of giant, precisely shaped blocks, many of which appear to be machine-cut.
Archeologists were mostly intrigued about how the ancient dwellers managed to precisely cut and move blocks of stone weighing between 100 and 150 tons.
What role it served remains unknown, but the place seems devastated by a catastrophic event which occurred at some point in time.
Other sunken temples were found beneath Lake Titicaca, confronting researchers with further enigmas but at the same time providing a few answers.
We can now say that the existence of pre-Columbian constructions under the waters of Lake Titicaca is no longer a mere supposition or science-fiction, but a real fact. Further, the remnants found show the existence of old civilizations that greatly antecede the Spanish colonization. We have found temples built of huge blocks of stone, with stone roads leading to unknown places and flights of steps whose bases were lost in the depths of the lake amid a thick vegetation of algae.”
This antique civilization might hold relevant answers to some of humanities burdening questions.
Archeologists have uncovered statues, idols and writings referring to the white gods of the Mesoamericans, underwater deities from Mesopotamian culture, as well as figures resembling those found on Easter Island – all of them in a remote mountainous area in modern-day Bolivia. Doesn’t this seem out of place?
The idea of ancient aliens that found shelter on Earth, helping the primitive dwellers evolve and prosper begins to take shape now more than ever, but this remains the topic of discussion for another time.